Rebirth of Reason

Human Action
by Ludwig von Mises
Human ActionThis book is amazing in content and clarity.  Mises sets out to not only systematically detail economic theory, but to provide a foundation and methodology of the science.  And he does a superb job.  He doesn't just make economic arguments.  He shows why his methodology is necessary.  This is his magnum opus.

Mises is part of the "Austrian" school of economics.  They approach economics through a methodology quite different from mainsteam economists.  Instead of dealing with statistics and equations, the Austrian connect economic principles to the actions and goals of individuals.  Mises book provides a defense of this method, and shows how other methods are deeply flawed.  He then goes on to put the method into practice, tying extremely complex economic results to the choices and actions of individuals.

The size and scope of the book is huge.  It's not a casual read.  But there's so much to gain from it, it's worth the effort.  If you want to really understand economics, this book is a must read.  If you want a more comprehensive understanding of the case of individual liberty, this book is for you.
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